Author Topic: LED Guide  (Read 10896 times)

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Offline scaru

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LED Guide
« on: August 10, 2013, 05:30:39 PM »
                            I would suggest reading my guide on
tint, binning, and CRI before reading this.

This is a comparison between all of the common LEDs. The LEDs included are: XP-G, XP-G2, XM-L, XM-L2, XR-E, XP-E, XP-E2, Nichia 219, SSC-P7, MC-E, SST-50, SST-90, MT-G2

XP-G

The XP-G is a small Cree LED that is 3.45 mm by 3.45mm. The size of the die is 1.4mm by 1.4mm for a total die surface of 1.96mm2 which is often simplified to 2mm2. It is distinguishable by it's size and the grid of 4 strips.



It has 7 brightness bins ranging from R2 to S4. They go in the order of: R2, R3, R4, R5, S2, S3, and S4. It is generally driven up to 1.5 amps, but had been driven higher with better heatsinks.

Bin   350mA      700ma      1000mA     1500mA
R2    114-122    213-228    285-305     380-406

R3    122-130    228-243    305-325     406-433

R4    130-139    243-260    325-348     433-463

R5    139-148    260-277    348-370     463-493

S2    148-156    277-292    370-390     493-520

S3    156-164    292-307    390-410     520-547

S4    164-172    307-322    410-430     547-573

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less.



The XP-G is generally used in smaller lights due to the smaller size of it. It also can be more effective in throwers due to the small die size compared to the XM-L. 
This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius.  When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.

The XP-G can run on as little as 2.5 volts (moonlight) but in most cases the vf (forward voltage) is closer to 3-3.5 volts. 

Going by this data the XP-G can go up to 2 amps before the law of diminishing returns kicks in.  The XP-G uses the same method of rating tints as the XM-L. It does come in a Hi-CRI version that does 90 cri; at the expense of efficiency and being 3000k. (WW) The datasheet can be found here.

It can be purchased in many places. Intl-outdoor has a great selection of them in a variety of tints.  http://www.intl-outdoor.com/led-xpg-c-107_127.html?page=1&sort=20a

XP-G2 The XP-G2 is the successor to the XP-G. It is more efficient along with having a different die design. It was originally introduced in July 2012. It also is 3.45 mm by 3.45 mm with a die size of 1.4 mm*1.4mm. (1.96mm2) It can be identified by its size along with its lack of a grid.
 

It has 6 brightness bins ranging from Q4 to R5. They are: Q4, Q5, R2, R3, R4, and R5. 
Bin   350mA    700mA      1000mA      1500mA
Q4   113-121   206-220    275-294      373-399
Q5   121-129   220-235    294-313      399-425
R2   129-138   235-252    313-336      425-454
R3   138-147   252-268    336-357      454-485
R4   147-157   268-287    357-382      485-518
R5   157-170   287-310    382-412      518-558

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. Note2: I took this data from FlashlightWiki so it was multiplied by 13% to account for them being binned at higher temperatures than XP-Gs. If you do not understand this ignore it.

[/i]As the successor to the XP-G, the XP-G2 is used in the same category of lights. Due to it being released recently it has not found its way into budget lights yet, but it most likely will in the future.



The vf (forward voltage) of the XP-G2 ranges from 2.8 volts 3.3 volts depending on how hard it is being driven. 



Along with being more efficient, the XP-G2 can handle more current before it reaches the point of diminishing returns. (At 2.6 amps) Compared to the XP-G which puts out 450 lumens at 2 amps, the XP-G2 puts out 525 lumens. 

Like the XP-G it also comes in a Hi-CRI version, however since it is a new LED it cannot be found anywhere for sale.  The datasheet can be found here.  Intl-Outdoor has a fairly good selection of them, in a variety of tints.  http://www.intl-outdoor.com/led-xpg-c-107_127.html?page=1&sort=20a

XM-L The XM-L first became available in December 2010. It is a 5 mm*5 mm LED with a die size of 2 mm*2 mm. (4mm2) It is one of the larger LEDs that Cree makes and can be identified the 6 strips in a grid across it. 


It has 7 brightness bins ranging from T2 to U3. They are: T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, U2, and U3. 

Bin    700mA    1000mA           1500mA         3000mA
T2     200-220    275-303        390-429        650-715
T3     220-240    303-330       429-468         715-780
T4     240-260    330-358       468-507         780-845
T5     260-280    358-385       507-546         845-910
T6     280-300    385-413       546-585         910-975
U2     300-320    413-440       585-624         975-1040
U3     320-340    440-468       624-663        1040-1105

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less.
[/i]The XM-L is generally used in lights that run on Li-ion batteries due to it needing large amounts of current. It is used in a number of throwers due to its large output.



 Note: This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.  

This graph shows that the XM-L needs between 2.5 volts and 3.4 volts to operate. 


The XM-L can handle up to 4.4 amps in this instance before it reaches the point of diminishing return. Due to the extremely large amount of heat that is being generated here a large heatsink with adequate surface area is a must.  The XM-L can be found in a number of different tints, which is covered very thoroughly in this thread.  Datasheet is here.  The XM-L can be bought most anywhere, but as usual I will recommend Intl-Outdoor.  http://www.intl-outdoor.com/led-xml-c-107_125.html

XM-L2 The XM-L2 is the successor to the XM-L, it first became available in December 2012. Like the XM-L it is a 5 mm*5 mm LED with a die size of 2 mm*2 mm. (4mm2) Unlike the XM-L it does not have a grid on the die. 



It has 9 brightness bins ranging from S4 to U2. They are: S4, S5, S6, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, and U2. 
Bin    700mA       1000mA     1500mA     3000mA
S4     186-196     256-268     360-377     612-641
S5     196-207     268-284     377-400     641-679
S6     207-227     284-313     400-439     679-746
T2     227-250     313-343     439-483     746-820
T3     250-273     343-375     483-528     820-895
T4     273-296     375-406     528-571     895-970
T5     296-318     406-438     571-615     970-1044
T6     318-341     438-468     615-659     1044-1119
U2     341-364     468-500     659-703     1119-1193

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. Note2: I took this data from FlashlightWiki so it was multiplied by 13% to account for them being binned at higher temperatures than XP-Gs. If you do not understand this ignore it.
To date the XM-L2 has not been used in any lights. Vinhnguyen is taking preorders for a XM-L2 P60 drop in but they have not been produced yet. However, one could expect them to be used in the same lights as XM-Ls once they have fully entered the market. 

 This graph shows that the XM-L2 needs between 2.7 and 3.4 volts to operate. 

Note: The scale on this graph is non-standard.
Since the XM-L2 is extremely new there is no lumen testing that has been done on it. For that reason I have created a graph based on the approximate lumen values supplied in the datasheet. I assumed it was a XM-L2 U2. Obviously, this graph does not tell us anything new.  So far the XM-L2 can only be bought in NW or CW. The advantage is that a NW T6 XM-L2 is equal to a NW U3 XM-L. As there never was a NW U2, let alone a U3 this is a huge advantage.  The datasheet can be found here.  So far they only can be purchased from Mouser. As time passes they will most likely be available from more sources.

XR-E The XR-E is one of the oldest Cree LEDs, it was attached to a 9mm by 7mm substrate. Despite the extremely large board, it has a tiny die. There are two different die sizes. The EZ1000 which was 1mm by 1mm. Later on the EZ900 one was released which had a .9mm by .9mm die. (EZ1000 on left and EZ900 on right)

It has 10 brightness bins ranging from N3 to R2. They go N3, N4, P2, P3, P4, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, and R2. 

Bin    350 ma
N3     56.8
N4     62
P2     67.2
P3     73.9
P4     80.6
Q2    87.4
Q3    93.9
Q4    100
Q5    107
R2    114

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. Due to the extremely small die size the XR-E is often used in dedicated throwers. For example the DEFT EDC used it, as did basically every other custom throw king. People do not use it in flood lights due to its low lumen output. 


Note: This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.
The XR-E needs between 2.3 volts and 3.7. It generally has a vf of around 3.3 volts. As someone else pointed out, XR-Es doe require a higher voltage than a XP-G. 


In this instance the XR-E can handle up to 2.1 amps before hitting the point of diminishing returns. In throwers it is generally driven around that level. The newer XR-Es are reported to pull up to 2.5 amps while still increasing in brightness, but this is unconfirmed.  The XR-E is hypothetically available in tints ranging from CW to WW, but the usual sites do not seem to sell anything other than CW.  Datasheet can be found here.  LedSupply has a great selection of XR-Es in a variety of colors.  http://www.cree.com/~/media/Files/Cree/LED%20Components%20and%20Modules/XLamp/Data%20and%20Binning/XLamp7090XRE.pdf

XP-E In September 2008 the XP-E was released. It is 3.45mm*3.45mm with a die that is 1mm*1mm. It has a grid with 3 strips. 



It has 8 brightness bins ranging from P4 to R4. They go in the order: P4, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, R2, R3, and R4. 
Bin  350mA       700mA      1000mA
P4  80.6-87.4  137-149  177-192
Q2  87.4-93.9  149-160  192-207
Q3  93.9-100  160-170  207-220
Q4  100-107  170-182  220-233
Q5  107-114  182-194  233-251
R2  114-122  194-207  251-268
R3  122-130  207-221  268-286
R4  130-139  221-236  286-306

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. XP-Es are generally used in the same lights as XP-Gs. They are small and do not require very much current, perfect for lights that use a boost driver. The low lumen output does not matter in this type of light as the driver can only supply so much current. 


Note: This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.
Note2: Ignore the green line, it is for green XP-Es. XP-Es generally need around 3-3.5 volts depending on the current. 

Note: This is for a Green XP-E I couldn't find data for a white one so I used this. It is most likely fairly close to a white XP-E.

The XP-E goes up to 1.6 amps without reaching the point of diminishing returns. Sadly, it does not get very bright despite the high currents.  The XP-E is commonly available in CW along with green and red.  Datasheet can be found here.  Intl-Outdoor has a good selection of them.  http://www.intl-outdoor.com/led-xpe-c-107_126.html?page=1&sort=20a

XP-E2 The XP-E2 is the successor to the XP-E, it was released in September 2012. Like the XP-E it is 3.45mm*3.45mm with a die that is 1mm*1mm. Unlike the XP-E it does not have a grid of bond wires. It is approximately 20% brighter than the XP-E. 



It has 9 brightness bins ranging from P2 to R3. They are: P2, P3, P4, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, R2, and R3. 

Bin  350mA     700mA       1000mA
P2  78.0-85.7  133-147  171-187
P3  85.7-93.5  147-160  187-204
P4  93.5-101  160-174  204-222
Q2  101-109  174-187  222-238
Q3  109-116  187-198  238-253
Q4  116-124  198-212  253-270
Q5  124-132  212-226  270-289
R2  132-142  226-242  289-309
R3  142-151  242-258  309-329

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less.
Note2: I took this data from FlashlightWiki so it was multiplied by 13% to account for them being binned at higher temperatures than XP-Gs. If you do not understand this ignore it.
The XP-E2 can be used in any place a XP-E is used. So it will be used in small lights, but so far very few lights have adopted it. Vinhnguyen, a member of CPF, does make P60 drop ins with them. 

This graph shows that the vf of a XP-E2 is generally between 2.8 and 3.2 volts depending on the current.
 

The XP-E can handle currents up to 1.6 amps before it reaches the point of diminishing return. Most lights tend to drive it with less current, generally around 1 amp.  The XP-E2 is hypothetically available in tints ranging from CW to WW, but so far I have only seen CW.  Datasheet is here.  Digikey has a large selection of XP-E2 emitters.  http://www.digikey.com/product-highlights/us/en/cree-xlamp-xp-e2/2612

Nichia 219 The Nichia 219 is a LED that has exploded in popularity recently. It has an extremely high CRI at 92, while being NW. Most LEDs that are 92 CRI are 3000k, not the 4500k of this LED. Note: While this LED is supposed to be 4500k, the newest ones coming from IS are closer to 4200-4300k.


 It comes in brightness bins ranging from B07 to B14. They are: B07, B08, B09, B10, B11, B12, B13, and B14.

Bin  350mA     700mA    1000mA    1500mA
B07  70-80     131-150  175-200   239-273
B08  80-90     150-168  200-225   273-307
B09  90-100   168-187  225-250  307-341
B10  100-110  187-206  250-275  341-375
B11  110-120  206-224  275-300  375-409
B12  120-130  224-243  300-325  409-443
B13  130-140  243-262  325-350  443-477
B14  140-150  262-280  350-375  477-512

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. Note2: The Hi-CRI Nichia 219 (type H-1) only goes up B10 bin. This is because in order to get a Hi-CRI they must have a larger ratio of red to other colors. To do this they block select amounts of non-red colors.

Note: This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.
The Nichia 219 has a much higher forward voltage than other Cree LEDs. It ranges from 3 volts to 4 volts depending on current level.

  The Nichia 219 can handle up to 2 amps in this test, but the amount it increases by is rapidly dropping.  The advantage to the Nichia 219 is the Hi-CRI, due to this the other tints are not used since they are not Hi-CRI.  Datasheet is here.  Illumination supply stocks the Nichia 219.  https://illuminationsupply.com/nichia-leds-c-39.html

SSC-P7 The SSC-P7 was one of the first LEDs to be over 500 lumens. It originally was released in 2008 (I think) and is made up of 4 dies. It was made by SeoulSemiConductors, a competitor to Cree. Each die is 1mm by 1mm and they are all wired in parallel. The SSC-P7 was recently discontinued. 

It came in many different brightness bins, but the most commonly used ones were A, B, C, D, and E. 

Bin  1400mA     2800mA
A     251-326    440-570
B     326-400    570-700
C     400-457    700-800
D     457-514    800-900
E     514-629    900-1100

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less.
When it first came out it was one of the brightest LEDs ever. For this reason it was used in all kinds of lights. Due to the multi-die structure there was often a cross in the beam image, whether it was used with a reflector or an aspheric lens.


The SSC-P7 has a fairly high vf, and for this reason the bins with a lower vf were very rare. 


Note: The pink line is passively cooled and the purple line is actively cooled with a fan.
The SSC-P7 maxes out at 5.6 amps in this test, but it is generally driven closer to 3 amps. Due to the large amount of heat generated a large heatsink is a must. While it may seem that it could be brighter than an XM-L, in reality the XM-L will beat it; both in brightness and efficiency.  It was extremely popular at the time, but fell out of favor due to: the high vf, high cost, large size, and low efficiency.  Datasheet is available .pdf]here.  It is not for sale anywhere as it was discontinued.   

MC-E The MC-E was the Cree version of the P7. It uses 4 1mm*1mm dies. Unlike the P7 each die can be individually controlled, this means one can wire it 4S, 2S2P, or 4P. They also produced a MC-E with a Red, Blue, Green, and White die; this was used in the Quark RGB along with other custom lights. It had a much smaller footprint than the P7 and was star mounted. 

It came in 6 brightness bins: H, J, K, M, N, and P. 

Bin  1400mA     2800mA
H  280-320  490-560
J  320-370  560-648
K  370-430  648-753
M  430-490  753-858
N  490-550  858-962
P  550-620  962-1085

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. Note2: This assumes they are wired in parallel. Each die is getting 1/4 of that. (350 ma and 700 ma) The MC-E was used in all kinds of lights, especially ones that wanted maximum brightness. It also was used in RGB lights since it came with 4 dies of separate colors.

Note: This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.
The vf of it when wired in parallel (white) is generally around 3.2-3.5 volts. 

Note: As usual this assumes it is wired in parallel.
The MC-E reaches the point of diminishing return around 5 amps. Despite using the same dies as the P7, the P7 was favored by modders since it could handle high currents and being direct driven better.  The datasheet is here.  The RGB MC-E is available from Intl-Outdoor.  http://www.intl-outdoor.com/cree-mce-color-led-20mm-mcpcb-p-644.html

SST-50 The SST-50 was one of the first high powered LEDs. It is made by Luminous, a competitor of Cree. Due to the large price (20-30 dollars) it is generally not used in budget lights. It is attached to a 7.3mm by 9mm substrate. The die has a surface area of 5mm2. (2.2mm*2.2mm) Note: While the specs of the SST-50 are great it does not do very well in flashlights, often dying a premature death. Active cooling or a large surface area (fins) is a definite must for this light.

Note: The LED is shown on a Cree star board despite being made by Luminous.
The SST-50 comes in 5 bins: G, H, J, K, and L.

Bin  1750mA     2800mA     5000mA
G    275-350     440-560     743-945
H    350-425     560-680     945-1148
J     425-500     680-800     1148-1350
K    500-600     800-960     1350-1620
L    600-700     960-1120    1620-1890

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. The SST-50 is generally used in higher end lights, along with small pocket rockets. 

Note: This graph is measured when the junction temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. When used in a flashlight it will be at a higher temperature so this data is only approximate.
The vf of the LED is generally between 3 volts and 3.8 volts depending on the current. 

Despite what the rating of the LED is, it can go up to 6 amps and beyond. This means it is better to use the SST-50 rather than the XM-L if the drive current is over 4 amps.  The datasheet is here.  Mouser sells the SST-50 LED here.  http://ca.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Luminus-Devices/SST-50-W45S-F21-GJ401/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMsyM1rGGtQxrJqmQH6ll2Gi

SST-90 The SST-90 is one of the brightest single die LEDs. It is mace by Luminous, a competitor of Cree. Like the SST-50 it is rather expensive so is not commonly used. It is attached to a 10mm by 11mm substrate. The die is 3mm*3mm for a total area of 9mm2. 

The SST-90 comes in 5 bins: L, M, N, P, and Q. 
Bin  3150mA     5000mA     9000mA
L     600-700     930-1085   1620-1890
M    700-850     1085-1318  1890-2295
N    850-1000   1318-1550   2295-2700
P    1000-1200  1550-1860  2700-3240
Q   1200-1450  1860-2248   3240-3915
Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less. The SST-90 is often used in large reflectored throwers due to the massive output. An example of this would be the SR90. 


 The vf of the SST-90 is generally around 3.6-3.7 volts when in use. It is because of this that people experimented with LED burn ins to reduce the vf. 



 The SST-90 can go up to 9 amps and well beyond as demonstrated by this graph. It does so while putting out over 2000 lumens.  The datasheet is here.  Mouser sells the SST-90 here.  http://ca.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Luminus-Devices/SST-90-W57S-F11-GN200/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMsyM1rGGtQxrI8dTF8bA2Y5

MT-G2 The MT-G2 was released in April of 2012 and only recently has made its way into custom flashlights. Unlike most LEDs it has a vf of around 6 volts. (I am focusing on the 6v version) This allows it to run at 6 volts and 3 amps and still produce over 2000 lumens. It is attached to a 9.1mm by 9.1mm substrate. 

 It comes in 9 bins: E, F, G, H, J, K, M, N, and P.   

Bin    1100 mA
E       506
F       552
G       598
H       644
J        690
K       748
M       805
N       863
P       920

Note: These are emitter lumens. OTF lumens once it is installed in a flashlight will be less.
So far it has only been used in custom lights. An example of this is Match's 4M, a minimag running off of 2 IMR 14500s. 

This shows that the vf will be between 5.75 volts and 6.25 volts the majority of the time. 

This shows that the MT-G2 can handle current far above the rated 3 amps. At 5 amps it is still increasing and has already reached over 2700 lumens.  The datasheet is here.  It can be bought here.  http://www.cutter.com.au/proddetail.php?prod=cut1381&cat=167 Feel free to correct me on any mistakes I made, whether they be grammar or technical. ;)

Source List/Bibliography

I realized I should give credit to the people who did tests that I took data from, so that is all here. :)
  • XP-G
  • Picture of LED is from Flashlight Wiki
  • Data is from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen test by Match
  • XP-G2
  • Picture of LED is from Flashlight Wiki
  • Data is from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • vf and lumen graphs from Match
  • XM-L
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • lumen graph by Match
  • XM-L2
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • XR-E
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen graph by Match
  • EZ900 v/s EZ1000 comparison picture: here
  • XP-E
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen Graph by Match
  • XP-E2
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen graph by Match
  • Nichia 219
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Nichia Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • SSC-P7
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from SSC-P7 Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Graph of vf and lumen output by "jtr1962" (Member of CPF)
  • MC-E
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen graph by Match
  • SST-50
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Luminous Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen graph by Match
  • SST-90
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Luminous Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen graph by "Mike cz" (Member of CPF)
  • MT-G2
  • Picture of LED and Bin data from Cree Datasheet/FlashlightWiki
  • Lumen graph by Match
So to everyone who's images/data I used, thank you and if you would like it removed for any reason PM me.

Offline WarHawk-AVG

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Re: LED Guide
« Reply #1 on: January 19, 2014, 12:06:42 PM »
Awesome!  Thanks

Offline Toeydodee

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Re: LED Guide
« Reply #2 on: January 26, 2015, 12:30:50 PM »

Can anyone tell me the start time and location? It would be my first venture so not sure how the handicap would work

Offline JohnnyMac

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Re: LED Guide
« Reply #3 on: March 04, 2015, 06:10:08 PM »

Can anyone tell me the start time and location? It would be my first venture so not sure how the handicap would work
I'm not sure what it is you are asking for?  Can you clarify?
« Last Edit: March 04, 2015, 06:10:29 PM by JohnnyMac »

Offline logonx

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  • Posts: 2
Re: LED Guide
« Reply #4 on: May 12, 2017, 09:43:20 AM »
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